• Global population growth, demographic change, and increasing affluence will increase the demand for food which will lead to growth in demand for food and changing patterns of demand – and can also aggravate food insecurity and exacerbate poverty.


  • Global climate and other environmental changes that will have direct or indirect impacts on food production, fisheries, and supplies, including rising carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, leading to rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns and increasing incidence of extreme weather events (such as storms, floods, heat waves and droughts), sea level rise and ocean acidification. Indirect changes include socio-economic responses to the physical changes in climate and adaptation or mitigation (e.g. changing crops or livestock systems). A changing climate may also lead to changes in the distribution and/or severity of pests and diseases in crops and animals and has the potential for severe impacts on food production and animal welfare. As well as threats, changes in climate may offer new opportunities for food production in some parts of the world.


  • Environmental impacts of farming, fishing, food processing and manufacture, storage, transport, retail, consumption, and waste disposal: negative impacts can include increasing water and land use, soil erosion and degradation, loss of biodiversity, GHG emissions and water pollution. Food production is ultimately dependent on other ecosystem services, so it is essential that these are maintained.